Tuesday, 23 March 2010

copyright laws in terms of interactive media essay

What is Copyright

Copyright is a term that helps a designer or publisher of a specific type of material used for their work or self portfolio, to stop others from stealing their rights of that particular piece of work. Copyright is printed in a small print at the lower bottom of a webpage or it is seen normally in small print at the bottom of posters or other material. Copyright law gives the owner of the copyright the right to prevent others, from stealing or taking parts of their work, this is called restricted acts.

Who owns copyright?

The rule is, the true owner to copyright is the designer or person who produced the piece of work. For example if I was to take a photo of the Queen of England’s palace, then I would have copyright over that image, or if Joe Blog’s down the road was to draw a picture of the Queens palace then he would have full copyright over that drawing.

One important exception to this is when an employee creates a piece of work in the course of their employment, in which case the copyright owner will be the employer.

Websites in copyright

When viewing a website it is very open to all, this means that anybody can take your image and even sell it on their own site. To avoid this problem it is best to add the copyright notice at the bottom of your website to tell your visitors that this is a restricted site on copyright. You can add water marks on your images of your company logo, this will stop users from copying your images due to the transparent water mark. Water marks can be removed but they contain a lot of time and the image will never be the same.

Another way is to add Copyright messages in your CSS sheets, or html files, to alert the visitor.

Disallowed Acts

Many people every day break the copyright law and some do not even know they are doing it, partially because they have not been educated in this subject,

In order to have broken the copyright law, a user must have carried out a restricted act with somebody else’s work that contains copyright.

These acts contain copying another persons work directly from the internet,

Adapting or amending others work, playing others work to the public, selling others work to the public, Broadcasting others work and downloading copyrighted material.

Allowed Acts

Fair dealing is a term used to describe acts which are permitted without infringing the work, these acts are

Private and research study purposes.

Copies or lending for educational purposes.

Criticism and news reporting.

Incidental inclusion.

Copies and lending by librarians.

Acts for the purposes of royal commissions, statutory enquiries, judicial proceedings and parliamentary purposes.

Recording of broadcasts for the purposes of listening to or viewing at a more convenient time, this is known as time shifting.

Producing a back up copy for personal use of a computer program.

Playing sound recording for a non profit making organisation, club or society.

(Profit making organisations and individuals should obtain a license from PRS for Music.)

Joint Ownership of Copyright

This basically means if you are in a group where there is more then one of you, and you are all working on the same project, the finished outcome, may not be copyright to just you. As a team effort Joint ownership means you need to have a piece of work that has been produced by somebody another then yourself. ( However if it is a design company then this does not count because the employer has the full rights of all the work, this rule will apply if you and a friend, design a poster for your band.

How do I get permission for Copyright

To get permission for copyright material, it is simple all you have to do is ASK, the person. They may reply and except your request. If for some reason you cannot find the artist who created that particular work then it is possible to do a search check on the Internet using the copyright office. If the person replies with negative feedback it is best to stay away in case they take legal action. However if your feedback is positive make sure you always keep any emails or letters from your artist incase of any possible future problems.

Free Material

If the artist refuses your request there are a lot of websites these days which do let you use free stock images that will more then likely contain the file you are searching for.

So really theirs no need to steal images from other peoples work, when the internet is giving away free stuff!.

Most of these free sites will ask you, that if you take one of our images will would like you in favour to leave our logo at the bottom of your site, or leave a link referring back to their home page for others to view. For a free image they are not asking for allot, plus it saves you time making a complex graphic.

Free material does not just apply with images but also audio, and video too.

When Rights Occur

You automatically achieve copyright by creating a piece of work your work should be classed as an individual piece, (skill of creation)

Copyright is gave to those who spend there time and effort on a piece of work which they whish to share but not have stolen. For example, if you design a logo about cars that would not be copyright because anybody can design a logo for cars, but the case is this, if you design a logo for a car company and Joe Blog’s down the road copies your concept, for their idea then that is classed as copyright. , enough to be covered, but a creation, such as a logo, that combines these elements may be classed as theft (copyright).

Moral Rights

Moral Rights are split up into four different categories, these are as follows.

The right to be identified as the author or director of a work e.g. when copies are issued to the public this is often known as partiality right.

The right to object to derogatory treatment, reputation of a person of work or film which amounts to distortion or mutilation or is otherwise damaging to the author and directors reputation and even career.

The right to privacy of certain photographs and films.

The right to object to false attribution of a work.

Unlike copyright Moral Rights cannot be sold.

Paternal Rights.

The author of a musical, film, or the director of a copyrighted film has the overall right to be identified as the author of the work.

This right is normally confirmed in writing by a small statement or email sent from the author to the person dealing with the copyright content.


People often wonder what a Patent is. A patent protects anything new you have invented. In order to have a patent your design must be new, and be cable of being used in some kind of industry. I at cannot be obvious to someone with knowledge and experience. They cover the rights on how things work, how they do it, what they are made of. They stop people from importing your idea to other countries. A patent gives you the full rights of anybody stealing your idea without asking any permission first.

If you were to create the new ‘’FaceBook’’ but better features, then you would need a Patent to prevent anybody else from stealing your ideas, also you would need to ask FaceBook first if you decide on using any of there ideas.

FaceBook is the type of creation that would have a Patent.

Design Rights

A designer should produce a concept which is unique to any other design they are producing. To achieve this they use the design process to figure out which idea fits best for the final outcome. A different design is made up of good formal elements and esthetical looks. Overall the owner of the design is the designer, in which case the rights belong to the employer if you are employed to make the design.

Intellectual Property Rights

IP is divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source; and Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical

Works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs.

The most common types of intellectual properties rights are as followed,

Copyrights, trademarks, patents industrial design rights and trade secrets

Fair Use and Public Domain

Fair use is the term for legal concept which would allow any copyrighted works to be copied to a limited extent for the purpose of parody satire, and social commentary. So basically the owner may let them use their image if he/she places a link on there site or they may be only allowed to edit only certain parts of the material. There are some artists who like to share there work and make it Public Domain, this is a group of works, where there are no restrictions so basically the public can use it as they please.

Creative Commons

Is a website designed for people who whish to share or show there work.

Here is a link to some work I produced then I gave my work some fair use rights, which allowed the visitor to be able to use my work in strict ways, which I requested.

This is the link to my work, http://wwwinteractivemediastudent-leeb.blogspot.com/2010/03/geometric-design-by-lee-is-licensed.html

This is the link to my right s http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/uk/

The age of Copyright.

In the UK, the copyright laws work differently than those, in the united states, and other countries. The general rule of concerning copyright for media work is that the copyright expires 70 years after the death of the writer or creator of the work, so if a writer Produced a piece of work in 1940 and died in 2000 then their work will not become public domain until 2070. However if their book is republished under new authors, then the original cover will not be in the public domain until 70 years after the republished authors death.

Copyright In Sound Recording

Copyright expires 50 years from the start date it was made. Or if it was published 50 years from the publication. However if that track was played to the public in a documentary, broadcast, or live show, then the track becomes copyright 50years after the last public showing.

How Do you find Public domain material.

Public material is easy to find, you just have to search in the right areas for it. An example of a public domain location would be, a website hosted on the internet that provide you with free images. Some websites may request you to leave feedback on the users profile or they may ask you to ask permission before downloading that specific content. You also might have a choice where you are aloud a photo but you have to display their logo in the corner of your website or poster as part of their advertisement.

The safest and original way to get hold of a public domain is to produce the image your self. Most of the time the image will only take a few minutes and that few minutes can save you a few quid in court.


A Trademark is a sign or logo that is different from any other business.

It can distinguish your goods and services from your competitors.

A Trademark can be for example just a word , logo, or a combination of both.

Owner of a Trademark

The owner of a registered trademark can commence legal proceedings for trademark infringement, so basically if you copyright there material they can take legal action, for stealing or amending their Trade Mark.

Free copy Right Material

When looking for free copy right material my first website was FreeFoto.com a website designed to give you any photo you ask for free.

“All the site requested was these few rules,
“FreeFoto.com provides its images under three available licensing options.
1) ANYONE, by which we mean commercial and non-commercial alike, can use FreeFoto.com images in an online setting, providing they provide attribution to the image and a link back to FreeFoto.com (either the image or the main site). This license allows blogs, social networking sites and use in emails, just to name a few, providing they provide the required attribution, this includes sites that pay people to write, carry advertising or are selling and promoting products. The only requirement the attribution” and link back.”

Creative Commons
“The creative commons site for creative people who wish to copyright their work but put it a public domain for others to view and use”.


“A website for free images”



· “Flickr.com allows you to share, store, search, and sort your photos. There are always plenty of images available for you to use. Flickr is free, though you will have to register if you want to upload and edit your own images. The photographers establish the terms, so read the permissions carefully. If you use someone else’s Flickr image, it’s always in good taste to link back to its source”.


· “Bigfoto.com offers pictures from around the world, including America, Asia, Europe, Africa, and Pacific. Each main category has subcategories, for instance “aviation,” which allows you to choose from pictures in a certain theme “.

· “Fotogenika.net has photos for free download for personal, educational, and nonprofit use. However, you cannot use them commercially, sell them, or claim authorship. The site is well organized, and it includes categories such as architecture, animals, people, and textures. “

· “FreeDigitalPhotos.net has over 2000 free images that you can use in commercial and noncommercial work. You are not allowed to sell, redistribute, or claim these “

· FreePhotosBank.com “allows users to have non-exclusive, non-transferable license to images. You can search for photos, see which photos are the most popular, and which ones have the highest ratings or the most downloads.”

· FreeMediaGoo.com has a large collection of images, audio, textures, and other visual mediums that you can use for free with some restrictions. You do not even have to credit the images. The site also features some amazing digital images if you are looking for something different.

· “MorgueFile.com offers stock photographs in high resolution digital. With over 55,000 images, divided into several categories, they are sure to have something you can use. The thumbnails are small, but your search results display quickly, and the photos are of top quality.”

· “PhotoRogue.com offers a different concept. If you cannot find what you need, you can send a request. The service is free and uses volunteer photographers. If you like, you can also sign up for an RSS feed that will let you know when new images become available. “

· “SXC.hu offers high quality images taken around the world by amateur photographers. If you have an interest in photography, you can even submit your own pictures. There are various searching options and over 100,000 images. The photographers establish the terms, so read the fine print, but most pictures can be reused immediately. “

· “Picsearch.com is another option for those who are not sure exactly what they are seeking. Picseach is a search engine that crawls the web and indexes images. However, make sure that you see the site’s licensing terms or contact the copyright holder before you download pictures. You can edit your search by animation, colour, or size to find exactly what you need. “


Audio Micro
“Audio Micro is a revolutionary collection of user-generated micro stock music, sound effects, production music, production elements and music cues. Finally, high quality audio content is available at unbelievable prices with no hidden costs or fees.”

“Search for, preview and download royalty free sound effects for immediate use in your multimedia project. These high quality royalty free sound effects are hand-picked from only the best sound designers.”

“Is the best platform to find and share free sound effects and loops- legally. It is a collection of original sounds made or recorded by its users, and not songs or sound FX found on commercial libraries or sample CD’s.”

“FindSounds.com is a free site for finding sound effects and musical instrument samples on the Web. It is a Web search engine, like Google and AltaVista, but with a focus on sounds. It provides powerful features, yet is simple and easy to use, and suitable for all ages.”

“The Freesound Project aims to create a huge collaborative database of audio snippets, samples, recordings, bleeps, … released under the Creative Commons Sampling Plus License. The Freesound Project provides new and interesting ways of accessing these samples, allowing users to browse the sounds in new ways using keywords, a “sounds-like” type of browsing and download sounds to and from the database, under the same creative commons license.”
“Acoustica has a great database and will help you find that ever so elusive sound effect!
Alc Ljudprod have assembled their sound effects in MP3 format and they are free to download and use.”
“Event sounds lets you download Wavs so you can change the sounds your computer makes such as start up sounds, mail sounds, shut down sounds, error sounds, movie sounds and TV sounds.”

After finding websites that contain free content of non copyright, I have made a report on the cost of using copyright material.
The table shows the following.
Written work















Tuesday, 9 March 2010

comparing 3 different 3d animation software programs.


3D Studio Max


The impact of hardware components, in 3d animations.

The impact of hardware components, in 3d animation.

GPU The GPU known as the "graphics processing unit" it is a small unit that basically transforms the image we see on the monitor. The GPU is a bit like a translator which speaks a different language and passes the language onto another person in another language, until it makes true sense.
it relies on the graphic card and converts all digital and graphical information from the game software into a image that we see on the monitor.

image taken from www.dignews.com

CPU, The CPU Known as the "central Processing Unit" is the main part of the computer without it it woldn't work. A CPU is a example of the human brain. Our brains tell us what to do and when to do it, just like a CPU does, only we input to the monitor and the CPU tells the whole computer the rest.

RAM known as "random access memory", this basically allows your system to have more memory while having more applications open at the same time, this can improve your over all system performance.

known as "hard disk drive" or the "hard drive" The hard drive, is a place on your computer for storage, a example is like your loft, when you place items up there until you need them again.
The hard drive is where all your files are stored including files that you never see such as drivers which are used for controlling pieces of hardware.
some computers are split into two hard drives a C drive and D drive others have just one.
Hard drives are getting much bigger as computers get better, this is a advantage as we can now have higher performance software's running on our machines.

graphics pipeline

Hardware requirements.

3D Studio Max

System Requirements

For 32-bit Autodesk 3ds Max 2010

For 64-bit Autodesk 3ds Max 2010

  • Microsoft® Windows® XP Professional (Service Pack 2 or higher) or Microsoft® Windows® Vista (Business, Premium, or Ultimate)
  • Intel Pentium® 4 or higher, AMD Athlon® 64 or higher, or AMD Opteron® processor
  • 1 GB RAM (2 GB recommended)
  • 1 GB swap space (2 GB recommended)
  • Direct3D 10, Direct3D 9, or OpenGL-capable graphics card, 128 MB
  • Three-button mouse with mouse driver software
  • 2 GB hard disk space
  • DVD-ROM drive
  • Microsoft® Internet Explorer® 6 or higher
  • DirectX® 9.0c* (required), OpenGL® (optional)
  • Microsoft® Windows® XP Professional x64 or Microsoft® Windows® Vista 64 bit (Business, Premium, or Ultimate)
  • Intel® EM64T, AMD Athlon® 64 or higher, AMD Opteron® processor
  • 1 GB RAM (4 GB recommended)
  • 1 GB swap space (2 GB recommended)
  • Direct3D 10, Direct3D 9, or OpenGL-capable graphics card, 128 MB
  • Three-button mouse with mouse driver software
  • 2 GB hard disk space
  • DVD-ROM drive
  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 or higher
  • DirectX 9.0c* (required), OpenGL (optional)

Some features of 3ds Max 2010 are only enabled when used with graphics hardware that supports Shader Model 3.0 (Pixel Shader and Vertex Shader 3.0). Check with your manufacturer to determine if your hardware supports Shader Model 3.0.


System Requirements

  • Windows 2000, XP or Vista
  • Mac OS X 10.2 and later
  • Linux 2.2.5 i386
  • Linux 2.3.2 PPC
  • FreeBSD 6.2 i386
  • Irix 6.5 mips3
  • Solaris 2.8 sparc

Minimal specs for Hardware

  • 300 MHz CPU
  • 128 MB Ram
  • 20 MB free hard disk Space
  • 1024 x 768 px Display with 16 bit color
  • 3 Button Mouse
  • Open GL Graphics Card with 16 MB Ram

Good specs for Hardware

  • 2 Ghz dual CPU
  • 2 GB Ram
  • 1920 x 1200 px Display with 24 bit color
  • 3 Button Mouse
  • Open GL Graphics Card with 128 or 256 MB Ram

Production specs for Hardware

  • 64 bits, Quad core CPU
  • 8 GB Ram
  • two times 1920 x 1200 px Display with 24 bit color
  • 3 Button Mouse + tablet
  • Open GL Graphics Card with 768 MB Ram, ATI FireGL or Nvidia Quadro
content from http://www.blender.org/features-gallery/requirements/

Carrara 7Pro
System Requirements

  • Mac Intel or Power Macintosh 700 MHz (1.6 GHz or faster recommended)
  • Mac OS X 10.3.9 or above
  • 1 GB RAM min (2 GB recommended)
  • OpenGL compatible graphics card with at least 128 MB RAM
  • Drivers supporting OpenGL 1.1 recommended
  • 600MB free hard drive space for installation
  • 32-bit graphics color depth
  • *Note: Carrara 7 will not function installed on a UNIX partition under Mac OS X.*
  • Pentium III Processor 700 Mhz (1.6 GHz or faster recommended); Windows 2000 (Service Pack 2); Windows XP; Windows Vista
  • 1 GB RAM min (2 GB recommended)
  • OpenGL compatible graphics card with at least 128 MB RAM
  • Drivers supporting OpenGL 1.1 recommended
  • 600MB free hard drive space for installation
  • 32-bit graphics color depth
research / content taken from http://toolfarm.stores.yahoo.net/ca7proupfrca.html

Hardware and software constraints in 3d animation

Hardware and software constraints within commercial 3d animation production.

When designing a 3d animation 3d software is rare and expensive to get hold of. I personally like to use Carrara but when I purchased this program I was confronted with a software constraint that stopped me from using it on my computer.
I use a Apple Mac computer only for my design work and I bought this software thinking that it would install as normal, but it didn't.

This type of issue is very common in 3d software and leaves designers with a problem on the hands. I had no choice but to purchace the apple version.
I felt that after I had made a purchase I shouldnt I needed to do this as they should Of thought about this before hand and made the software work on all specs of computers.
Another software issue is when I saved my 3d work and opened it on another computer with newer older versions of the program, the software cauld not find my file. This was due to me saving it in a new version. I personally found this fraustrating and very time wasteing. I believe there should be a way around this issue to prevent this from happening. Maybe they should include a new type of file exstention which can be read on all types of versions then this would prevent this.

When rendering a 3d animation there can be some constraints depending on your rendering output settings.
If your animation is a scene of high quality objects which contains objects that display hundreds of polygon counts, and the output settings are set as photorealistic with all shadows to show with indirect lighting with caustics enabled, and the progression status is set at best, also the rendering is set at best, then your animation is going to taken forever to render.
This is because your computers processor is running to slow and cannot keep up with the data being thrown at it, also you may need to upgrade in ram for better memory when dealing with 3d rendering.
To help reduce this constraint issue I have taken a quote from a website below.
Quote taken from http://forums.creativecow.net/thread/19/864225

"The best ways I've found to speed up your renders are as follows Reduce render depth (render settings>options>ray depth etc.) Dont use dispersion on transparency or reflections Dont use GI (although it will speed up your preparation time untik you are experienced at setting up lights manually) Dont use Ambient Occlusion (produces good results but is slow) Dont use Caustics Use geometry and animation settings for antialiasing (or none) Transparency setting to no refraction All of these settings will reduce the render quality to a certain degree but some in particular render depth can often have little or no visible impact. Here are a few general tips Dont have too many transparent textures, in particular over other transparent objects. Use instances where you have multiple objects that are the same Learn how to use render tags so objects outwith the view or that you dont need/want reflected aren't calculated ".

Software specs
3d animation has developed quickly over the last decade, and is getting much more higher in quality graphics and speed of frame rate.

But if we think back to our old computer games way back to the N64, our graphics and overall entertainment are a huge success over the past generations.

The N64, that everybody had was a big thing at the time, the graphics were a 2d plat form which we all thought was great.

The N64 was released in 1996 as Nintendo's front-runner in the original next-gen console wars. Although it was a much higher powered machine than Sony's Playstation

A fairly modern system is needed to play emulate the machine, and a 3D accelerated graphics card is an absolute must (on board graphics won't cut the mustard here). Game ROMs are available from ripped cartridges, ranging in size (5MB-70MB).

  • CPU: MIPS R4300i, 93.75MHz, 64-bit, 24KB L1, 125 MIPS, 250 MB/sec Bus
  • Graphics: SGI RCP, 62.5MHz, 100 MFLOPS, 150K Polygons/Sec, 32-bit Color, 500 MB/sec Bus
  • Sound: SGI RCP, 64 2D Voices, ADPCM, 500 MB/sec Bus
  • Data: 4MB (500 MB/s), Cartridge (32MB), Expansion 4MB RAM
some content was taken from http://www.emulator-zone.com/doc.php/n64/

The PS1 later came out in japen 1994 the specs of the ps1 are more improved as you can see from the results below.

  • Analog Joystick
  • Controller
  • Memory Card
  • Link Cable
  • Mouse with Pad
  • RFU Adaptor
  • Multitap Unit
  • R3000A
  • 32 bit RISC processor
  • Clock- 33.8688MHz
  • Operating performance - 30 MIPS
  • Instruction Cache - 4 KB
  • Data Cache - 1 KB
  • BUS - 132 MB/sec.
  • Data Transfer Rate (DMA TO RAM) 150 KB/sec. (Normal) 300 KB/sec. (Double speed)
  • Maximum Capacity - 660 Megabytes
  • Features Audio CD play XA Interactive Audio
  • Control Pad Two control pad connectors Expandable with multitap connector
  • Backup RAM Two removable cards 128 KB Flash Memory OS support for File Save, Retrieve and Remove
  • Serial Port I/O Link Cable Connectivity
  • Main RAM: 2 Megabytes Video RAM: 1 Megabyte Sound RAM: 512 Kilobytes CD ROM buffer: 32 Kilobytes OS ROM: 512 Kilobytes
  • 24 Channels
  • 44.1KHz sample rate
  • PCM audio source
  • Digital effects include: Envelope Looping Digital Reverb
  • Load up to 512K of sampled waveforms Supports MIDI Instruments

The PS2 came out in japen year 2000.

The graphics at this stage are more higher in quality due to the polygon models and textures applied to the models.

  • CPU: Emotion Engine 300MHz, 128-bit INT, 128-bit FP, 24KB L1, 16KB Scratch, 8KB VU0, 32KB VU1, 450 MIPS, 6.2 GFLOPS, 66M Vertices/Sec, 2.4 GB/s Internal, 1.2 GB/s Graphics, 3.2 GB/s Memory
  • Graphics: Sony GS 150MHz, 1.2G Texels/Sec, 32-bit Color, 4MB (48 GB/s), 1.2 GB/sec Bus
  • Sound: SPU2, 48 2D Voices, ADPCM, 2MB
  • Data: 24MB (2.6 GB/s), 16MB (81 MB/s), 4.7GB Discs, Expansion 56K Modem Ethernet
content is taken from here http://www.emulator-zone.com/doc.php/n64/

The ps3 came out in 2006, this console is the lastest and most recent innovation of the gameing world, along with the Wii and the Xbox.

The Ps3 has alot of improved specs as showed below.

  • 7 x SPE @3.2GHz
  • 7 x 128b 128 SIMD GPRs
  • 7 x 256KB SRAM for SPE
  • * 1 of 8 SPEs reserved for redundancy total floating point performance: 218 GFLOPS

GPU: RSX @550MHz

  • 1.8 TFLOPS floating point performance
  • Full HD (up to 1080p) x 2 channels
  • Multi-way programmable parallel floating point shader pipelines

Sound: Dolby 5.1ch, DTS, LPCM, etc. (Cell-base processing)


  • 256MB XDR Main RAM @3.2GHz
  • 256MB GDDR3 VRAM @700MHz

System Bandwidth:

  • Main RAM: 25.6GB/s
  • VRAM: 22.4GB/s
  • RSX: 20GB/s (write) + 15GB/s (read)
  • SB: 2.5GB/s (write) + 2.5GB/s (read)

System Floating Point Performance: 2 TFLOPS


  • HDD
  • Detachable 2.5” HDD slot x 1


  • USB: Front x 4, Rear x 2 (USB2.0)
  • Memory Stick: standard/Duo, PRO x 1
  • SD: standard/mini x 1
  • CompactFlash: (Type I, II) x 1

Communication: Ethernet (10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-T) x3 (input x 1 + output x 2)

Wi-Fi: IEEE 802.11 b/g

Bluetooth: Bluetooth 2.0 (EDR)


  • Bluetooth (up to 7)
  • USB2.0 (wired)
  • Wi-Fi (PSP®)
  • Network (over IP)

AV Output:

  • Screen size: 480i, 480p, 720p, 1080i, 1080p
  • HDMI: HDMI out x 2
  • Analog: AV MULTI OUT x 1
  • Digital audio: DIGITAL OUT (OPTICAL) x 1

CD Disc media (read only):

  • PlayStation CD-ROM
  • PlayStation 2 CD-ROM
  • CD-DA (ROM), CD-R, CD-RW
  • SACD Hybrid (CD layer), SACD HD
  • DualDisc (audio side), DualDisc (DVD side)

DVD Disc media (read only):

  • PlayStation 2 DVD-ROM

Blu-ray Disc media (read only):

  • BD-Video: BD-ROM, BD-R, BD-RE
this content has been taken from http://playstation.about.com/od/ps3/a/PS3SpecsDetails_3.htm


The N64 was a brillant computer of it's time and we all thought the graphics were true to life because we had never seen anythink like this before, but there were problems, with this console.
When playing there might have been issues of crashing or slow performace in the game this was due to the graphics card and the slow speed of the machine processing the game, and loading information. The console cauldn't keep on track with alot of jobs at one time, so high graphics were a problem for this particular system.

The PS1 was one of the first machines to introduce the CD version of games, this was a more faster way in terms of processing data, then the cartrige way.
At this point models were also inproved with higher polygon counts due to the increase speed.

over the gerations the consoles have got better including more interactive options for us to do.
As new material is released such as HD,BlUE TOOTH, BLUE RAY and 3D, game developers make it possible for us to use these options for use with our TV's at home, the PS3, XBOX and Wii is currently the most advanced consoles with hardware and software that is able to except all these features above.

constraints in 3d animation


A constraint in 3d animation is a type of barrior which conflicts and causes the animitor to have issues.

A typical constraint when designing a 3d model is when buying your first issue of your 3d software, and it is not registerd with your pc or mac. maybe when
"Constraints have been used for user-interfaces since the Sketchpad system [13] in 1963. Constraints
enforce hidden relations between objects as they are common in layouts or animations.
For example several kinds of 2D animations can be expressed as constraints in Amulet
[10], and there exists a constraint-based system"


As their name suggests, constraints are used to limit the motions or behaviours of an object to a certain subset of all those possible. A simple example might limit the motion of object to that of rotating around a single point.

Some examples

An example animation that uses constraints and rules is shown here. It models a `pool table' and has `rules' of gravity and object interaction applied to all the objects to create the correct motion. A constraint limits the balls to motion in contact with the surface of the table until they move beyond its bounds. The constraint is then no longer valid and the rule of gravity causes the ball to fall.

Another example shows a simulation of Newton's cradle (MPEG, 33K). This has`invisible' supports for the balls to give a better view of their motion. Constraints are use to keep the balls a constant distance from the support (to model the strings) and a gravity rule is included to model the forces present when the balls are displaced from the rest position.

content taken from click here

here is another example of how Constraints are applied to a 3d object. click here content taken from youtube.com

Monday, 8 March 2010

analysing commercial 3d animation productions

3d Animation Introduction.

3d animation has developed rapidly over the last few years, Now with it's use we can design any think we imagine using 3d software.

3D animation is probably the most advanced of all computer animations. Facial expressions are critical in 3D animation. Programs for creating 3D animation are Soft Image, Alias, Light Wave, Carrara and 3D Studio Max.


3D has many type of uses and advantages. Computer games started off with just a few pixels on a 2d plane, now games of today use a high standard rendered polygon models with UV texture maps, applied to them for a aesthetic effect.

simulators use 3d animation to create a world of excitement and a fearless sense of imagination.

We use 3d to show the qualities of an object or product will look like, before the rendered product has even been manufactured.

3d is used in commercial adverts to show off what their product is available of achieving.

With 3d you can design graphics for websites and have the ability to import work as still images or videos formats into website editing software, (such as flash cs4.)

3D movies are becoming more popular today, with the use of wearing 3d glasses while watching your film, you can picture your film in a realistic and three dimensional movement.

Provendering,Rendered and on the fly renders.

Pre -rendering, is when the process of which the video footage is not rendered in real-time by using the hardware that is outputting or playing back the video or animation.

Rendered, is when we define a photo which may be a object of a bottle, and then we build an object using primitives into a 3d model to define the look in the photo. We do this using 3d software, once the model has completed vertices's, we add textures to the surface, of the bottle.
the final model is rendered for and overall client visual.

This piece of media is a short animated film by recent creative graduates It’s a tale of the sun, moon and two characters who inhabit a world that relies on night and day.

“The greatest challenge for the designer was conceptualising all the mechanics and creating a logical and valid system for the sun and moon’s cycle. they must have gone through 20 re-writes of the script and endless designs for machinery before settled. Although the story is ultimately fantasy, the mechanics of it still had to seem possible in real-world applications.

The Characteristics and qualities of this animation are shown as quite static. The characteristics in the animation shows the old house which looks almost cartoon like because of it's slant stance. We can can see night sky in the background and a foggy cloud in the moonlight, which gives the qualities in this shot a spooky impression to it.

This particular piece of 3d animation shows the concepts of what 3d animation can do when thought about.

The form and looks in this design show a modern day car transformed into a robot.

its shape still has car features, however ergonomically we see it as a futuristic robot, its purpose is to show the public and people who are interested in buying this type of vehicle that it is the best car out there.

By mechanically showing the car transform into a robot, gives a unimaginative impression to the public and forces them to think "wow" "this car is for me" however we all know cars don't turn into robots.

the semiotics signs here is that Nissan want to sell there new car by using the advanced 3d animation effects.

showing impact, power, strength, and a car that has great adaptable transformations.

The characteristics in this advert have huge power on a little car. By using 3d to change the form of the car they have completely trasformed the characters style and cummunicated a message that reads power, energy, speed and a quality looking car.

The qualities show that this car is built for a life time.

Evaluation for 3d film.

Toy story was released in 1995 and was the first 3d animated movie to become successful of that time.

since then 3d animation has become much more advanced becoming almost photo realistic to the human eye.

In the toy story film here we see high quality use of charature modeling. the charatures are made to look like toy dolls, so the texture applied to each doll looks different, buzz light years texture has a shiney material and plastic surface texture, however woodeys clothing is made to look raggy and rough, so by giving him a rough texture and patterns give the effect to his type of appearance.

in the image we can see that woodey is pointing and laughing directly towards buzz. If we look at woodeys pupils, notice they are positioned on Buzz Light years wings.

the semiotics to the image is that woodey is laughing at buzz because he is actually jealous of his spart space suit, and scared that his owner Andy, might replace him with a new toy.

what we are seeing here is all of the above , is taken place from a long story board into one single scene.

The characteristics show two children's toys, which one on the right (woodey) is shown in a stance where he is laughing at (Buzz light year) we can tell this due to the way woddys eyes are glanced at buzz's wings, also the fact that his arm is in a posture where he is pointing directly towards buzz.

we can tell the character of buzz does not look amused due to his emotion and feedback on woodey.

As years grew toy story was left behind and animation got better. it is the year 2010 and 3d animation is at its best,

Shrek 4 is soon to be released, with high quality graphics and 3d modeling from the top company of pixar.

The image to the left is a sample of how 3d animations look today, taken from shrek 2.

In this image we can see their use of form to construct the hair, the fur is of high quality, this type of rendering would contain dozens of polygon counts. aesthetically we can see high quality use of lighting in the eyes that reflect light from another space.

this term is know as ("indirect lighting") They have used shadows in areas to the left side of the cheek where light is coming from the right side.

The characteristic in this shot shows emotion and sadness. the eyes show this, because They have made their charature look emotional, upset, by begging, due to how the paws are up tight and holding the hat near to the face. the eyes cast off a watery glow that shows the charature is about to burst into tears.
Note also the mouth is sad, with no smile. The designer has made the character with these semiotic meanings to play that specific part in the film.

The qualities in this shot shot the innocents of the cat.

Monday, 1 March 2010

(branding) what are the atributes of a brand

A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, association, trademark or design which is intended to identify the products or services of one provider or group of providers, and to differentiate them from those of competitors. A brand has functional and emotional elements which create a relationship between customers and the product or service.

The image on the left is the original image of the Nike logo,

The Nike logo is a Well known brand around the world.
The iconic symbol is no less then just a tick and works on any product that it is applied to. in order for this brand to work successfully, Nike use the same form and shape in the logo through out it's appearance.
If this logo was to be transformed in anyway then we would see another logo not the Nike logo. However when changing Nike's colour it does,'t effect the brand as we still see the iconic symbol in our heads, This is when we add aesthetics to the design, to meet the target audience.

The Nike logo is a basic form of shape, that shows speed.

This is an example of how a brand can be applied in fashion.

The Nike brand can also be applied in posters and advertising. The form and look of the brand is still the same as the first image.

Brand attributes can be either negative or positive, and can have different degrees of relevance and importance to different customer segments, markets and cultures.
Pepsi are one of the biggest drink brands on the planet. with Brands all over the globe, from tv adverts to posters and drink products.

branding applied to a product.

branding applied in advertisment.

Brand attributes are the basic elements for establishing a brand identity.

O2 are one of the biggest phone companies in the world, this is due to their use of branding and advertising.
There logo is very basic and simple but yet successful.
Their colour scheme works for every product they advertise in.

the brand applied to a product

a example of the applied in fashion.

The brand applied to leaflets.

O2 brand applied to packaging.

o2 website, includes branding.